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1. The Columbian performance artist Luis Sotelo mentioned that it would be useful to have the GPS data of walk performance, to prove where the path once led, and where there should be a right of way as an indigenous walk.

2. The field path society use GPS to help to prove where a particular path should be marked on the map, if, for instance it is marked wrongly on the OS map, or if there is a dispute about whether a path can be walked or not. They also mark missing signage, broken styles etc with waypoints.

3. Reindeer GPS tracks prove which bits of ancient forest are important feeding grounds during winter migrations.

Maps as forms of resistance are discussed by Barbara Bender in her essay ‘Mapping Alternative Worlds’, in the Common Ground book ‘from place to PLACE’. Maps are she says forms of power, and ‘surveys the land from an ego-centred viewpoint; and assumes an active viewer and a passive land’. She gives 5 examples of indigenous maps which are used as forms of resistance, in Santa Clara, Peru local maps of shifting inhabitation of settlements around a river that moves, settlements that don’t exist on the official maps.  In Lahore, Pakistan verbal maps of tunnels that are perhaps fictional describe a world that operates below and in the margins of official business. At Lake Titicaca Peru  locally made maps counter the assumptions of developers maps that imply less inhabitation. In Papua New Guinea, local sculpture maps that are made for funerals subvert the colonial mapping of the land, and go undetected by authorities, these maps that are remade for each funeral constantly map the shifting nature of the land and its use, and finally in Australia where locations have legal status but routes do not, maps related to naming are reclaiming land. GPS is also being used to map  routes and paths.

the Dreaming tracks, the stories, the poison places and who belonged where… Environmental and historical information – bush lore, traditional land uses, massacres, meeting places and such like. The result [is] a precise European-style map containing wholly Aboriginal information about the country. (from H. Murphy in Landscape: Politics & Perspectives by B.Bender 1993)

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